The Industrial Revolution in Britain

“In the eighteenth century, a series of inventions transformed the manufacture of cotton in England and gave rise to a new mode of production -the factory system. (…) Three principles: the substitution of machines -rapid, regular, precise, tireless- for human skill and effort; the substitution of inanimate for animate sources of power, in particular, the introduction of engines for converting heat into work, thereby opening to man a new and almost unlimited supply of energy; the use of new and far more abundant raw materials, in particular, the substitution of mineral for vegetable or animal substances. These improvements constitute the Industrial Revolution. (…) It also transformed the balance of political power, within nations, between nations, and between civilizations; revolutionized the social order; and as much changed man’s way of thinking as his way of doing” – David S. Landes


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